Pollution is a highly diverse phenomenon of human disturbance in ecosystems. Pollution management strategies can be applied at different levels. Knowledge and Understanding Pollution is the addition of a substance or an agent to an environment through human activity, at a rate greater than that at which it can be rendered harmless by the environment, and which has an appreciable effect on the organisms in the environment.
Most aquatic species cannot survive at such low oxygen levels. The oxygen depletion, referred to as hypoxia, begins in late spring, reaches a maximum in midsummer, and disappears in the fall.
After the Mississippi River flood ofthe spatial extent of this zone more than doubled in size, to over 18, km2, and has remained about that size each year through midsummer The hypoxic zone forms in the middle of the most important commercial and recreational fisheries in the coterminous United States and could threaten the economy of this region of the Gulf.
Nutrient over-enrichment from anthropogenic sources is one of the major stresses impacting coastal ecosystems. Generally, excess nutrients lead to increased algal production and increased availability of organic carbon within an ecosystem, a process known as eutrophication.
There are multiple sources of excessive nutrients in watersheds, both point and non-point, and the transport and delivery of these nutrients is a complex process which is controlled by a range of factors.
These include not only the chemistry, but also the ecology, hydrology, and geomorphology of the various portions of a watershed and that of the receiving system.
5-ESS Describe and graph the amounts and percentages of water and fresh water in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth. 5-ESS Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional concluding hook that signals the reader that this is the final major point being made in . 5-ESS Support an argument that differences in the apparent brightness of the sun compared to other stars is due to their relative distances from Earth. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to relative distances, not sizes, of rutadeltambor.comment does not include other factors that affect apparent brightness (such as stellar masses, age, stage).
Both the near-coastal hydrodynamics that generate water column stratification and the nutrients that fuel primary productivity contribute to the formation of hypoxic zones. Human activities on land can add excess nutrients to coastal areas or compromise the ability of ecosystems to remove nutrients either from the landscape or from the waterways themselves.
A plan to develop the assessment was completed in March of and presented to a Task Force convened by the EPA which includes federal, state and tribal government representatives.
More recently, the charge to submit an assessment of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico was written into law at the end of the th Congress Section a of P. In addition to this assessment, P.
The integrated assessment is intended to provide scientific information as a basis of the Action Plan but it is not intended to make recommendations for action nor is it the only source of information that will be considered in developing the Action Plan.
While the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA has been asked to lead the CENR assessment, oversight is spread amongst several federal agencies and the assessment itself is being conducted by teams that include academic, federal, and state scientists from within and outside the Mississippi River watershed The assessment of the causes and consequences of Gulf hypoxia is intended to provide scientific information that can be used to evaluate management strategies, and to identify gaps in our understanding of this problem.
While the focus of the assessment is on hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, the effects of changes in nutrient concentrations and loads and nutrient ratios on water quality conditions within the Mississippi-Atchafalaya riverine systems is also addressed.
The goals of the hypoxia science assessment are to document the state of knowledge of the extent, characteristics, causes, and effects both ecological and economic of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico.
The assessment will compile existing information on nutrient sources, identify alternatives for reducing nutrient inputs, and examine the costs and benefits associated with reducing the nutrient loads to surface waters.
Hypoxia Assessment Reports As a foundation for the assessment, six interrelated reports which examine various aspects of the hypoxia issue were developed by six teams with experts from within and outside of government.
The research teams were not established to conduct new research, but rather to analyze existing data and applied existing models of the watershed-gulf system.
However, they were encouraged to specifically identify additional research or data needed to fill knowledge gaps. Each of the reports underwent extensive peer review by independent experts. To facilitate a comprehensive review process of the reports, an editorial board was selected by the Work Group based on nominations from the Task Force and other organizations.
Editorial Board members were Dr.
Donald Boesch from the University of Maryland, Dr. George Hallberg from the Cadmus Group, Dr. Rodney Foil from Mississippi State University. The Editorial Board worked with the Hypoxia Work Group to select reviewers for the six reports, and served as brokers between the lead authors and the reviewers to ensure that significant comments were addressed.
These six now completed reports are to provide the foundation for the final integrated assessment that will be used by the Task Force to evaluate alternative solutions and management strategies.
To download and view the reports using Adobe Acrobat, please click on the titles.Ess Topic 5 Eutrophication Essay Eutrophication Outline the processes of eutrophication.
Eutrophication is the addition of excess nutrients to a water system, which leads to the growth and subsequent death of algae, which reduces the dissolved oxygen available for other aquatic organisms. Apr 02, · fertilizer addition and eutrophication on water quality, we first obtained two plastic aquariums filled with 3 liters of reverse osmosis water and another 3 liters of tap water, and added mg of aquarium salt to each.
The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional concluding hook that signals the reader that this is the final major point being made in .
Topic 5 Item 1 ESS Vision and access to microdata - Collaboration in Research and Methodology for Official Statistics. Outline the processes of eutrophication.
Evaluate the impacts of eutrophication. Describe and evaluate pollution management strategies with respect to eutrophication. These findings correlate with recent (5 years) observations of increasing algal blooms, seagrass epiphytization and die-off, and loss of coral cover on patch and bank reef ecosystems, suggesting that nearshore waters of the Florida Keys have entered a stage of critical eutrophication.