Geography a2 notes

What I learnt in Geography this week My Geography teacher has started an experiment which involves me writing about what I have learnt in my lessons and about any geographical news that interests me. My Geography teacher is also going to write a blog about what she teaches me and therefore what I should have learnt!

Geography a2 notes

Introduction What is the chi square test?

Geography a2 notes

The chi square test is used to test a distribution observed in the field against another distribution determined by a null hypothesis. Being a statistical test, chi square can be expressed as a formula.

When written in mathematical notation the formula looks like this: When using the chi square test, the researcher needs a clear idea of what is being investigating. It is customary to define the object of the research by writing an hypothesis. Chi square is then used to either prove or disprove the hypothesis.

Requirements Prior to using the chi square test there are certain requirements that must be met. Percentages cannot be used. The total numbers observed must exceed The expected frequency under the H0 hypothesis in any one fraction must not normally be less than 5.

All the observations must be independent of each other.

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In other words, one observation must not have an Geography a2 notes upon another observation. Hypothesis The hypothesis is the most important part of a research project.

It states exactly what the researcher is trying to establish. It must be written in a clear and concise way so that other people can easily understand the aims of the research project.

Using an example of agriculture and rock type, the hypothesis might be written like this. The frequency of farms depending mainly upon cereal crops for an income is not related to underlying rock type.

Note that the hypothesis states that there will be no significant relationship between rock type and the frequency of farms depending upon cereal growth for an income.

Such an hypothesis is called a 'null hypothesis', often referred to as H0. This is the way in which an hypothesis should always be written when conducting research. The opposite, or H1 hypothesis states that there is a significant relationship between one rock type and another in the number of farms relying mainly on growing cereal crops.

A well written hypothesis is essential. If you are not clear about your aims, you wont know what data you need to collect. There is nothing worse than finding that half the data you need was never collected!

Not only will you have to go out and do all the data collecting again, you will also find that you project takes twice as long as you expected. The whole purpose of the research project should now concentrate upon testing you hypothesis.

It is not necessary to end up with the result you expect to find. Any result, even an inconclusive one is valid. The results should set you thinking about "why? That is the whole purpose of research. Points to consider Having decided upon the wording of the hypothesis, the researcher should consider whether there are any other factors that may influence the study.

Considering our example of rock type and farm dependence on cereal crops, the following additional factors might be considered. This is not a full list, but a group of suggested factors that could influence the results of the study.

If they do, then the farmer is no longer growing crops on the pure underlying rock type. The researcher should mention these possible problems in their project, and explain how they could have influenced the results obtained.

In some cases the researcher may decide to take steps to reduce outside factors influencing the result, depending upon the hypothesis being tested.

Gathering The Data Before starting to gather data be sure you know exactly what you need to record. Decide upon a way in which you will write down your results and make sure that you do write them down immediately.Central to your revision will be to understand why public goods may not be provided by the rutadeltambor.com can work this out by distinguishing between public and private goods and focusing on the ideas of rivalry and excludability in consumption.

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A-Level Geography Resources. When I was completing my A-Levels I started this blog as a record of my Geography notes.

Geography a2 notes

I covered both the physical and human components of . Category:A level geography revision notes; TSR Wiki > Study Help > Subjects and Revision > Revision Notes > Geography > A Level Geography Revision Notes.

Below are the revision note topics for A Level Geography. Subcategories. This category has the following 9 subcategories, out of 9 total.

C. May 15,  · Geog A Level () Geography AS-A2 links; Geog A Level Edexcel AS-A2 Geog () Geog A Level Edexcel Geog U4 p1; Colour Coded Notes WE COLOUR CODE NOTES!

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