More recent research highlights the relationships between health and behavioral, psychological, and social variables. Acceptance of the fact that stress is linked to cardiovascular disease or to other health problems has become commonplace. However, research also reveals many reciprocal links among the central nervous system, which recognizes and records experiences; the endocrine system, which produces hormones that govern many body functions; and the immune system, which organizes responses to infections and other challenges.
We have structured this page around three basic questions: What is organizational learning? Is it individuals that learn in organizations, or can organizations learn themselves?
From this exploration we suggest that there are particular qualities associated with learning in organizations. The page links into discussions on different pages of the encyclopaedia of informal education. Learning For all the talk of learning amongst policymakers and practitioners, there is a surprising lack of attention to what it entails.
In Britain and Northern Ireland, for example, theories of learning do not figure strongly in professional education programmes for teachers and those within different arenas of informal education.
It is almost as if it is something is unproblematic and that can be taken for granted. Get the instructional regime right, the message seems to be, and learning as measured by tests and assessment regimes will follow.
This lack of attention to the nature of learning inevitably leads to an impoverishment of education. In order to start thinking about learning we need to make the simple distinction between learning as a product and as a process.
The latter takes us into the arena of competing learning theories — ideas about how we might gain understandings.
The former takes us to learning as either a change in behaviour or a change in our mental state. To explore these areas go to: Is it a process or a product? How might it be approached? Four different orientations to theorizing learning: The behaviourist movement in psychology has looked to the use of experimental procedures to study behaviour in relation to the environment.
In other words, they were concerned with cognition — the act or process of knowing. In this orientation the basic concern is for human growth.
We look to the work of Maslow and Rogers as expressions of this approach. It is not so much that learners acquire structures or models to understand the world, but they participate in frameworks that that have structure. Learning involves participation in a community of practice.
Two developments have been highly significant in the growth of the field. First it has attracted the attention of scholars from disparate disciplines who had hitherto shown little interest in learning processes.
A consequence of this is that the field has become conceptually fragmented, and representatives of different disciplines now vie over who has the correct model of organizational learning….
The second development is that many consultants and companies have caught onto the commercial significance of organizational learning… Much of the effort of these theorists has been devoted to identifying templates, or ideal forms, which real organizations could attempt to emulate. Easterby-Smith and Araujo A helpful way of making sense of writing on organizational learning is to ask whether writers fall into one of two basic camps.
The dividing line between them is the extent to which the writers emphasize organizational learning as a technical or a social process. Here we can again turn to Easterby-Smith and Araujo The technical view assumes that organizational learning is about the effective processing, interpretation of, and response to, information both inside and outside the organization.
This information may be quantitative or qualitative, but is generally explicit and in the public domain…. The social perspective on organization learning focuses on the way people make sense of their experiences at work.
From this view, learning is something that can emerge from social interactions, normally in the natural work setting.
Lave and Wenger and Wenger provide a fascinating example of the social perspective in action in their studies of apprenticeship and communities of practice. Here we will explore the notions of single- and double-loop learning and community of practice.
We will also look at the notions of experiential learning and informal learning. Single- and double-loop learning and organizational learning. Double-loop learning involves interrogating the governing variables themselves and often involves radical changes such as the wholesale revision of systems, alterations in strategy and so on.
We examine the notion of theories of action, single and double-loop learning, and the organizational orientations and practices linked to each.American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol.
27, No. 6, Ecological Factors Impacting Provider Attitudes Towards Human Service Delivery Reform1 Pennie G. Foster-Fishman,2 Debora h A. Salem, Nicole E.
Allen, and Kyle Fahrbach. NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. 1 Biological, Behavioral, and Social Factors Affecting Health. Biological, Behavioral, and Social Factors Affecting Health - Health and Behavior.
Your browsing . Factors Impacting on ETD Practice in South Africa. In a world of rapid change and advancement, there are a number of factors that impact on workplace education and training in South Africa.
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Effective Practice During The Social Justice System - Effective Practice In the Social justice system, there is a conglomerate of individuals that are motivated to question injustices along with advocating against the biases that society afflicts on a diverse population.
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