The controversy about genetically modified food

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The controversy about genetically modified food

Definition[ edit ] Genetically modified foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering as opposed to traditional cross breeding. The technology is often called 'modern biotechnology' or 'gene technology', sometimes also 'recombinant DNA technology' or 'genetic engineering'.

Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods. History of genetic engineering Human-directed genetic manipulation of food began with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection at about 10, to 10, BC.

The controversy about genetically modified food

The first genetically modified plant was produced inusing an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. Scientists modified bacteria to produce chymosin, which was also able to clot milk, resulting in cheese curds. The agency considers the mushroom exempt because the editing process did not involve the introduction of foreign DNA.

By some weed populations had evolved to tolerate some of the same herbicides. Palmer amaranth is a weed that competes with cotton. A native of the southwestern US, it traveled east and was first found resistant to glyphosate inless than 10 years after GM cotton was introduced.

Genetic engineering Genetically engineered organisms are generated and tested in the laboratory for desired qualities. The most common modification is to add one or more genes to an organism's genome. Less commonly, genes are removed or their expression is increased or silenced or the number of copies of a gene is increased or decreased.

Once satisfactory strains are produced, the producer applies for regulatory approval to field-test them, called a "field release". Field-testing involves cultivating the plants on farm fields or growing animals in a controlled environment.

If these field tests are successful, the producer applies for regulatory approval to grow and market the crop. Once approved, specimens seeds, cuttings, breeding pairs, etc.

The farmers cultivate and market the new strain. In some cases, the approval covers marketing but not cultivation. According to the USDAthe number of field releases for genetically engineered organisms has grown from four in to an average of about per year.

Cumulatively, more than 17, releases had been approved through September Genetically modified crops Fruits and vegetables[ edit ] Three views of a papaya, cultivar "Sunset", which was genetically modified to create the cultivar 'SunUp', which is resistant to Papaya ringspot virus [51] Papaya was genetically modified to resist the ringspot virus PSRV.

Its single-handed savior was a breed engineered to be resistant to the virus. Without it, the state's papaya industry would have collapsed. It was withdrawn in after retailers rejected it and food processors ran into export problems.

The potato was made resistant to late blight by adding resistant genes blb1 and blb2 that originate from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum. The plant's flowering cycle was changed to provide for more uniform growth and quality. According to Del Monte's submission, the pineapples are commercially grown in a "monoculture" that prevents seed production, as the plant's flowers aren't exposed to compatible pollen sources.

Importation into Hawaii is banned for "plant sanitation" reasons. Simplot Company that contained ten genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried. The modifications eliminate specific proteins from the potatoes, via RNA interferencerather than introducing novel proteins.

Corn-based masa flour and masa dough are used in the production of taco shells, corn chips and tortillas. Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odourless powder. It consists of two types of molecules: Maltodextrina lightly hydrolyzed starch product used as a bland-tasting filler and thickener.

Various glucose syrupsalso called corn syrups in the US, viscous solutions used as sweeteners and thickeners in many kinds of processed foods. Dextrosecommercial glucose, prepared by the complete hydrolysis of starch.

High fructose syrupmade by treating dextrose solutions with the enzyme glucose isomeraseuntil a substantial fraction of the glucose has been converted to fructose.It is common for people who support (or know little about) genetically modified foods (GMOs) to argue something along the lines of, “What’s the big deal?

May 01,  · GMOs — or genetically modified organisms — were in the spotlight again this past week following controversy at “The Dr. Oz Show” over, among other things, the television host and doctor.

Food Fray: Inside the Controversy over Genetically Modified Food. [Lisa H Weasel] Home. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Search. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library.

The Difference Between Open Pollinated, Hybrid and GMO Seeds | SFF

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The controversy about genetically modified food

Debating the pros and cons of Genetically Modified Organisms. Jump to. Sections of this page. organizations such as the Non-GMO Project have stepped up to give food companies a way to notify consumers that their food does not contain genetically modified ingredients. Is this really necessary? Should we .

by Megan L.

Norris Summary: As the prevalence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) continues to rise, there has been an increasing public interest for information concerning the safety of these products. Concerns generally focus on how the GMO may affect the environment or how it may affect the consumer.

One specific concern is the possibility for GMOs to negatively affect human health. Food crops have been genetically modified for several reasons—most of which produce a financial benefit to farmers and the chemical companies that produce the GMOs.

The Intensifying Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods