Some have gained the insight that buying decisions are not exclusively based on rationality, but cognitive problem solving behaviour is still in the focus of research interest. Does this paint a picture of the reality? Consumer-good markets arc characterized by constantly growing market saturation, exchangeability of products and an overload of information for the consumers.
Published online Feb Jacobs 125 Lorna H. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Conceived and designed the experiments: Received Oct 26; Accepted Jan 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Neuroscientific investigations regarding aspects of emotional experiences usually focus on one stimulus modality e.
Similarities and differences in the processing between the different modalities have rarely been studied directly. The comparison of verbal and pictorial emotional stimuli often reveals a processing advantage of emotional pictures in terms of larger or more pronounced emotion effects evoked by pictorial stimuli.
In this study, we examined whether this picture advantage refers to general processing differences or whether it might partly be attributed to differences in visual complexity between pictures and words.
We first developed a new stimulus database comprising valence and arousal ratings for more than concrete objects representable in different modalities including different levels of complexity: Using fMRI we then studied the neural correlates of the processing of these emotional stimuli in a valence judgment task, in which the stimulus material was controlled for differences in emotional arousal.
No superiority for the pictorial stimuli was found in terms of emotional information processing with differences between modalities being revealed mainly in perceptual processing regions.
While visual complexity might partly account for previously found differences in emotional stimulus processing, the main existing processing differences are probably due to enhanced processing in modality specific perceptual regions. We would suggest that both pictures and words elicit emotional responses with no general superiority for either stimulus modality, while emotional responses to pictures are modulated by perceptual stimulus features, such as picture complexity.
Introduction Most studies investigating emotional information processing use either verbal or pictorial stimuli to induce emotion, reliably revealing the involvement of limbic and paralimbic regions, such as the amygdala, the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the insula, or the visual cortex e.
It has been claimed that pictorial stimuli are able to induce higher emotional reactions, but it still remains an open question whether it is indeed the modality that is responsible for stronger emotional responses or whether the previously found superiority of pictures may rather be attributed to perceptual stimulus features such as differences in perceptual complexity, i.
Differences in the processing of verbal and pictorial information have been discussed extensively in the past without being explained conclusively. While some authors claim that pictorial and verbal information is processed in much the same way dual coding theories e.
Arguing for shared information representation and similar processing of pictures and words, Caramazza  claimed that semantic information is represented in a functional unitary system that is directly accessed by both visual objects and words.
In contrast, Glaser postulated a distinction between a semantic system to which pictures have a privileged access and a lexicon, which includes only linguistic knowledge e.
More recent influential theories of semantic processing propose that meaning is represented as embodied simulations of previous experiences e. While the theories, which try to explain differences between picture and word processing, are still underdetermined, the neuropsychological and neuroimaging data is equally inconclusive.
Either the involvement of different networks, supporting a dual coding perspective e. However, a common finding is an observed processing superiority of pictures as compared to words e. Rather than trying to solve this ongoing debate, the present study focuses on the processing of emotional information in pictures and words.
Here the literature is sparse with only few studies having compared both stimulus categories. In a behavioral study, DeHouwer and Hermans  found that emotional pictures, but not words, produced interference effects in a word—picture affective Stroop task.
Also, naming times were faster for negative pictures, but not for negative words. In line with theories of dual coding these authors concluded, that pictures also have a privileged access to emotional information, which they suggest is represented in the same system as semantic information.
Recent event-related potential ERP studies, on the other hand, revealed that emotional words and faces  as well as emotional words and pictures  may be decoded by the same cortical system, but at different processing speeds.
The existent ERP evidence hence seems to support a notion of emotional pictorial stimuli that are processed with superiority, regarding processing speed, as compared to symbolic word stimuli, while probably using similar brain areas .
In an fMRI study, Kensinger and Schacter  found processing differences with an overall superiority, i. The authors presented positive, negative, and neutral words as well as pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System IAPS,  in a semantic categorization task.
Both, emotional words and pictures showed enhanced activity of several regions of the prefrontal and anterior temporal cortex, and in occipital visual processing regions, while the amygdala showed a lateralized emotion effect with left-lateral activations for words and more pronounced bilateral activations for pictures.
This study thus suggests an overall superiority regarding the strength of activations for the pictures. The observed pictorial superiority in processing speed and strength of activations might be accounted for by the involvement of different neural systems as suggested above .
Nonetheless, the alternative perspective, that semantic content and its emotional valence is represented in a unitary system, which is accessed by both pictorial and verbal information, might also apply.
While the previously observed differences in processing speed could be attributed to translational activities necessary for the words, as suggested above  — we propose an alternative explanation: Some of the previously observed processing advantages, regarding the strength of activations of emotional pictures, may be attributed to differences in perceptual complexity or the amount of visual information of the stimuli rather than to distinct modality-specific processes.
As pictorial stimuli are characterized by more complex visual features than words, and since pictures and words are expected to be processed in parallel in early perceptual processing stages, the pictorial stimuli might be able to activate more semantically related details and memories.
The potential effect of visual complexity in emotion processing has indeed been emphasized in the past e. However, examining the neural correlates of visual complexity in the processing of abstract non-emotional, visual stimuli, Jacobsen et al.Emotional intelligence (otherwise known as emotional quotient or EQ) is the ability to understand, use, and manage your own emotions in positive ways to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathize with others, overcome challenges and defuse conflict.
The effects of emotional abuse are just as detrimental as the effects of physical abuse. However, the law recognizes physical and sexual violence as crimes against the individual but not emotional abuse (Rivara et al., ), although it is a pervasive form of relationship abuse (Black et al., ).
The film Inside Out is an exceptional and accurate portrayal of our five core emotions. These primary emotions are joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. This film depicts how we use these emotions when difficult and happy experiences arise, and how we need the negative emotions just as much as the positive.
Family Dynamics Family dynamics are the patterns of relating, or interactions, between family members. (the dynamics of the relationship).
Understanding problems requires the assessment of patterns of interactions, with an emphasis on what is happening, rather than why. a young person may be called a 'sook' in a family where emotional. Family Dynamics Family dynamics are the patterns of relating, or interactions, between family members.
(the dynamics of the relationship). Understanding problems requires the assessment of patterns of interactions, with an emphasis on what is happening, rather than why. a young person may be called a 'sook' in a family where emotional. Jun 01, · Before research on the relationship between social support, social networks, and psychological well-being can advance, a clear definition of terms is needed in order to gain a better understanding of positive and negative interactions and psychological well-being.